Department of Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun, Poland.
School of Computer Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
Although computational intelligence (CI) covers a vast variety of different methods it still lacks an integrative theory. Several proposals for CI foundations are discussed: computing and cognition as compression, meta-learning as search in the space of data models, (dis)similarity based methods providing a framework for such meta-learning, and a more general approach based on chains of transformations. Many useful transformations that extract information from features are discussed. Heterogeneous adaptive systems are presented as particular example of transformation-based systems, and the goal of learning is redefined to facilitate creation of simpler data models. The need to understand data structures leads to techniques for logical and prototype-based rule extraction, and to generation of multiple alternative models, while the need to increase predictive power of adaptive models leads to committees of competent models. Learning from partial observations is a natural extension towards reasoning based on perceptions, and an approach to intuitive solving of such problems is presented. Throughout the paper neurocognitive inspirations are frequently used and are especially important in modeling of the higher cognitive functions. Promising directions such as liquid and laminar computing are identified and many open problems presented.
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Reference: Duch W, Towards comprehensive foundations of computational intelligence. In: W. Duch and J. Mandziuk, Challenges for Computational Intelligence. Springer "Studies in Computational Intelligence" Series, Vol. 63, 261-316, 2007
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