Department of Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun, Poland.
School of Computing, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore.
Jacek M. Zurada
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, USA.
In many applications, black-box prediction is not satisfactory, and understanding the data is of critical importance. Typically, approaches useful for understanding of data involve logical rules, evaluate similarity to prototypes, or are based on visualization or graphical methods.
This review is focused on the extraction and use of logical rules for data understanding. All aspects of rule generation, optimization, and application are described, including the problem of finding good symbolic descriptors for continuous data, trade-offs between accuracy and simplicity at the rule-extraction stage, and trade-offs between rejection and error level at the rule optimization stage. Stability of rule-based description, calculation of probabilities from rules, and other related issues are also discussed. Major approaches to extraction of logical rules based on neural networks, decision trees, machine learning, and statistical methods are introduced. Optimization and application issues for sets of logical rules are described. Applications of such methods to benchmark and real-life problems are reported and illustrated with simple logical rules for many datasets. Challenges and new directions for research are outlined.
Published in: Proc. of the IEEE 92(5) (2004) 771- 805 (Bibtex Entry).
See also: front cover of the PIEEE issue, and the Prolog by J. Esch
Paper in PDF, 1.1 MB
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