Comparisons, lists, societies:
Architectures with software for experimentation
Theoretical ideas and architectures without available software:
- ACT Research Home Page (John Anderson) i Carnegielearning Cognitive tutors | Ms. Lindquist algebra tutor
- AGI, Artificial General Intelligence | The Open Cognition Project: open source Artificial General Intelligence framework | Open Cognition Wiki | Novamente AI Engine, Real AI Institute, Ben Goertzel
- AKIRA, a framework for implementing and testing cognitive models at different levels of complexity,http://www.akira-project.org (not working?)
- The AI Mind Project | Mindforth theory of mind implementation | AI Mind in Forth| AI Mind Project
- Ai (Israel), Hal, child machine
- BECCA - Brain Emulating Cognitive Control Architecture, an Open-source Artificial General Intelligence Platform from Sandia Labs
- CYC project, Cycorp, Inc
- CLARION (Ron Sun)
- CERA-CRANIUM Cognitive Architecture (Conscious and Emotional Reasoning Architecture)
- DiPRA, Distributed Practical Reasoning Architecture.
- DISCERN and PROC, Miikkulainen's distributed approach to language based on SOM maps.
- DUAL- hybrid, multi-agent, dynamic emergent computation, B. Kokinov | AMBER - Associative Memory-Based Reasoning, with code.
- 4CAPS in Wiki | Lisp code |
- The MicroPsi Project (Joscha Bach)
- Metacat (J. Marshall)
- Personalized Assistant that Learns (PAL) | PAL framework & software | PAL for iPhone |
- Polyscheme - Human-Level Intelligence Lab, Roensaller.
- Soar (Newell, Simon, Laird, others) | Soar Tech company | Soar-IFOR (real-time military pilot) | Steve - VR training | Soar - tutorials | Computer games in SOAR | AI in games (J. Laird) |
Projects related to cognitive architectures (mostly BICA), some already completed:
- CMattie, Conscious Software Research Group, Stan Franklin's architecture based on Baars model | older VMattie project |
- Ersatz brain project, James Anderson
- EPIC (Executive Process Interactive Control), David Kieras page, some info on David Mayers page
- OSCAR Project, John L. Pollock
- SAL - An explicitly pluralistic //cognitive architecture// (Jilk, Lebiere, O'Reilly, Anderson, 2008)
- Shruti, reflexive reasoning network
- DARPA Completed programs: Biologically-Inspired Cognitive Architectures (BICA), Learning Applied to Ground Robots (LAGR), Real-World Reasoning (REAL) and more.
- Architecture of Brain and Mind, integrating high level cognitive processes with brain mechanisms and functions in a working robot.|
- Blue Brain, EPFL+IBM, 10K Hodgkin-Huxley compartmental neurons (at the ion channels details) to model neocortical column, using NEURON simulator, completed in 2008.
- Brain-i-Nets, Novel Brain-Inspired Learning Paradigms for Large-Scale Neuronal Networks, EU project (2010-12).
- BrainScales, Brain-inspired multiscale computation in neuromorphic hybrid systems, EU project (2011) with 18 groups, wafer scale integration, in-vivo biological experimentation and computational analysis, also will test probabilistic inference mechanisms.
- C2S2, Cognitive Computing via Synaptronics and Supercomputing, part of DARPA Synapse initiative; initial simulations for 1.6G single compartment spiking neurons, ~9T synapses on about 150K CPUs of IBM Dawn Blue Gene/P supercomputer, newer work is on hardware chips.
- Digital Aristotle - project Halo.
- Semantic Inferencing on Large Knowledge (SILK)
- D-Omar in Java, an agent development environment.
- Emergent - extension of PDP++,Randall C. O'Reilly, BICA architectures are build around it.
- Evolved Machines, growing large neural nets for perception!
- FACETS, Fast Analog Computing with Emergent Transient States, EU project with 15 groups, neuromorphic analog spiking 256 neuron chips with 128K synapses, STDP learning, finished in 2010, followed by BrainScales.
- Keenan's Software for Memory and Cognition, psychological experiments
- NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies (NEAT) and HyperNEAT
- Nengo rapid spiking network simulator
- Neurogrid, Brains in Silicon at Stanford University, CMOS chips with 64K neurons x 16 on a board, Integrated and Fire neurons with additional simplified somatic compartments, about 300 transistors/neuron used, analog communication, 6G connections, real time, 5 W power only.
- OpenNERO research and education platform with graphical display of a 3-D physical world that includes multiple agents with embedded sensors and effectors and multiple objects; tutorial on neuroevolution and application in real-time games.
- Memory-based prediction and Neocortex project |
- SpiNNaker, A Universal Spiking Neural Network Architecture, Manchester; hardware chips, 1000 spiking point neurons each, based on ARM processors; 64K chips + 18 CPU cores architecture finished in 2012.
See also the most ambitious AI projects
Comparison of Artificial Brain Projects
- Taatgen N, Anderson J.R, The Past, Present, and Future of Cognitive Architectures. Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (2009) 1–12
- Duch W, Oentaryo R.J, Pasquier M, Cognitive architectures: where do we go from here?In: Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, Vol. 171 (Ed. by Pei Wang, Ben Goertzel, and Stan Franklin), IOS Press, pp. 122-136, 2008
- Hui-Qing Chong, Ah-Hwee Tan, Gee-Wah Ng, Integrated cognitive architectures: a survey. Artif Intell Rev 28:103–130, 2007.
- Hugo de Garis, Shuo Chen, Ben Goertzel, Ruiting Lian: A world survey of artificial brain projects, Part I: Large-scale brain simulations. Neurocomputing 74(1-3): 3-29, 2010; Part II: Biologically inspired cognitive architectures. Neurocomputing 74(1-3): 30-49, 2010
- Langley P, Laird J.E, Rogers S, Cognitive architectures:Research issues and challenges.Cognitive Systems Research10, 141-160 (2008)
- Thórisson K, Helgasson H, Cognitive Architectures and Autonomy: A Comparative Review. Journal of Artificial General Intelligence 2, 1-63, 2011 (open access, article + discussion)
Last changes: 2.07.2013 Wlodzislaw Duch